CONSTRUINDO IDENTIDADES, JUSTIFICANDO AÇÕES: A CONSTRUÇÃO IDENTITÁRIA DOS TERRORISTAS NOS DISCURSOS DE GEORGE W. BUSH

Wagner Martins dos Santos

Resumo


Este artigo analisa os discursos do ex-presidente norte-americano George W. Bush e os elementos discursivos que o permitiram construir uma dicotomia identitária, representada, por um lado, pelos ‘terroristas’ e, por outro, pelos ‘americanos’, sendo capaz de justificar suas ações em esfera internacional, culminando com a intervenção militar no Iraque em março de 2003. Com a base teórica fornecida pela teoria pós-estruturalista, sobretudo amparada nos argumentos teóricos levantados por David Campbell e Lene Hansen, e partindo da assertiva de que o discurso importa e se constitui na própria realidade, esta pesquisa argumenta da importância de se compreender o entrecruzamento entre identidade e política externa, refletida nos mitos e simbologias em torno de temas como terrorismo, democracia e armas de destruição em massa. Ao final, concluo que, mais do que discursos, os elementos levantados pelo ex-presidente foram capazes de moldar uma percepção particular dos ‘terroristas’ e dos ‘americanos’, e, com isso, orientar toda a política externa norte-americana em questões de segurança internacional. 


Texto completo:

PDF

Referências


BUSH, George W. Remarks by the President to the Troops and Personnel. Virginia, 13 fev. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/20010213-1.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001a.

BUSH, George W. Statement by the president in his address to the nation. Washington D.C, 11 set. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/ releases/2001/09/20010911-16.html, 2001b.

BUSH, George W. Remarks by the president in photo opportunity with the national security team. Washington D.C, 11 set. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010912-4.html>. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001c.

BUSH, George W. President’s Remarks at National Day of Prayer and Remembrance. Washington DC, 14 set. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/ releases/2001/09/20010914-2.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2001d.

BUSH, George W. President urges readiness and patience. Maryland, 15 set. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/2001 0915-4.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001e.

BUSH, George W. Remarks by the president in photo opportunity with the national security team. Washington D.C, 12 set. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse. archives.gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010912-4.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001f.

BUSH, George W. President says terrorists tried to disrupt world economy. Shanghai, 20 out. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/ releases/2001/10/ 20011021-5.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001g.

BUSH, George W. Address to a joint session of Congress and the American people. Washington D.C, 20 set. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives. gov/news/releases/2001/09/20010920-8.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001h.

BUSH, George W. President holds prime time news conference. Washington, 11 out. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/ 10/20011011-7.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001i.

BUSH, George W. Bush spoke from Barksdale Air Force Base in Louisiana. Louisiana, 11 set. Disponível em: http://www.washingtonpost.com/wp-srv/onpolitics/transcripts/ bushtext2_091101.htm. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001j.

BUSH, George W. President Bush: “No Nation Can Be Neutral in This Conflict”. Varsóvia, 6 nov. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/ releases/2001/11/20011106-2.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001k.

BUSH, George W. Remarks by the President upon arrival. Washington D.C, 16 set. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/ 2001/09/200109 16-2.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001l.

BUSH, George W. Presidential address to the nation. Washington D.C, 7 out. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/10/2001 1007-8.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001m.

BUSH, George W. Remarks by the President to U.S. Attorneys Conference. Washington D.C, 29 nov. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/ releases/2001/11/20011129-12.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001n.

BUSH, George W. President Discusses Stronger Economy and Homeland Defense. Maryland, 24 out. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/ news/releases/2001/10/20011024-2.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001o.

BUSH, George W. Radio Address by the President To the Nation. Washington D.C, 24 nov. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2001/ 11/20011124.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001p.

BUSH, George W. President Delivers Commencement Address at Coast Guard. Connecticut, 21 maio. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/ news/releases/2003/05/20030521-2.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2001q.

BUSH, George W. President delivers State of the Union Address. Washington D.C, 29 jan. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/2002/ 01/20020129-11.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2002a.

BUSH, George W. President Bush delivers graduation speech at West Point. New York, 1 jun. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/news/releases/ 2002/06/20020601-3.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2002c.

BUSH, George W. President Thanks World Coalition for Anti-Terrorism Efforts. Washington D.C, 11 mar. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives. gov/news/releases/2002/03/20020311-1.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2002c.

BUSH, George W. President says Saddam Hussein must leave Iraq within 48 hours. Washington D.C, 17 mar. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives. gov/news/releases/2003/03/20030317-7.html. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2003a.

BUSH, George W. President Discusses National, Economic Security in California. California, 2 maio. Disponível em: http://georgewbush-whitehouse.archives.gov/ news/releases/2003/05/20030502-7.html. Acesso em 8 jun. 2016, 2003b.

CAMPBELL, David. Writing Security: United States foreign policy and the politics of identity. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 1998.

HANSEN, Lene. Security as Practice: discourse analysis and the Bosnian war. New York: Routledge, 2006.

JACKSON, Richard. Writing the war on terrorism: language, politics and counter-terrorism. Manchester: Manchester University Press, 2005.

NATIONAL SECURITY STRATEGY (NSS). Disponível em: http://www.state. gov/documents/organization/63562.pdf. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2002.

NATIONAL STRATEGY FOR COMBATING TERRORISM (NSCT). Disponível em: https://www.cia.gov/news-information/cia-the-war-on-terrorism/Counter_Terrorism_ Strategy.pdf. Acesso em 10 jun. 2016, 2003.

SILBERTEIN, Sandra. War of words: Language, Politics and 9/11. London: Routledge, 2002.




DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.5380/cg.v7i1.57557

Apontamentos

  • Não há apontamentos.