Open Journal Systems

The rising tide of criticality in social entrepreneurship and social innovation

Timothy Curtis, Michael Bull, Vicky Nowak


In this article, we trace a rising tide of criticality to highlight three waves in a sea of social entrepreneurship/social innovation (SE/SI) research. Our aim is to draw attention to counter, alternative and critical perspectives in the field and how ‘dangerous’ their co-option by right wing narratives is. We review what we believe to be three waves in the development of a critical research agenda undertaken by a cohort of academics who, in their loyalty to the field, have sought to unpick the underlying assumptions in the practice of, and academic reflection on, social innovation. We set out the early instrumentalist critique, in which the success and social utility of SE/SI is questioned. We secondly highlight a post-structuralist shift, in which hidden and unheard voices and perspectives are welcomed and celebrated. The third wave, for us, constitutes a dangerous threat to the SE/SI project, threatening to undermine and co-opt the first two waves, as has happened in other related fields of intellectual endeavour. We position this paper to not only engage with scholars who challenge the normative assumptions behind social innovation research, but also to draw attention to the entry of right-wing politics in post-modernist critical theory. It is not that everything in this third wave is bad, but that everything becomes unexpectedly dangerous, especially if we uncritically adopt reflexivity, naturalization and performativity as politically and morally neutral positions. Contra to Foucault, in adopting a critical realist stance, we begin to propose that ‘the social’, posed as an inherently ‘good’ thing, is an ontological reality that is knowable, albeit given that our knowledge of what is ‘good’ is nonetheless limited and partial. In the first Skoll World Forum (2004) some activists put up posters in the toilets of Said Business School warning delegates, ‘beware social entrepreneurship: a wolf in sheep’s clothes!’ (Nicholls & Young, 2008, p. 272). We conclude our paper warning that SE/SI is not the only wolf to be concerned about!


critical theory; social innovation; social enterprise; reflexivity; naturalization; performativity

Full Text:



Aiken, M. (2006). How do social enterprises operating in commercial markets reproduce their organisational values. [Paper Presentation] 3rd Annual UK Social Enterprise Research Conference (p. 22-23). London: London Southbank University.

Aiken, M., Spear, R., Lyon, F., Teasdale, S., Hazenberg, R., Bull, M., & Massey, A.K., (2021). Social Enterprise in the UK. In J. Defourny & M. Nyssens (Eds.), Social enterprise in Western Europe: Theory, models and practice (p. 253-268). New York: Routledge, Taylor & Francis.

Alcock, P. (2010). A strategic unity: defining the third sector in the UK. Voluntary Sector Review, 1(1), 5-24.

Allan, B. (2005). Social enterprise: through the eyes of the consumer (prepared for the National Consumer Council). Social Enterprise Journal, 1(1), 57-77.

Amin, A. (Ed.). (2009). The social economy: International perspectives on economic solidarity. London: Bloomsbury.

Amin, A., Cameron, A., & Hudson, R. (2002). Placing the social economy. London: Routledge.

Amin, A., Cameron, A., & Hudson, R. (2003). The alterity of the social economy. In A. Leyshon, R. Lee & C. C. Williams (Eds.). Alternative economic spaces (p. 27-54). London: Sage.

Arthur, L., Keenoy, T., & Scott-Cato, M. (2006). Where is the ‘social’ in social enterprise? [Paper presentation]. 3rd Annual Social Enterprise Conference, June 22-23. London: South Bank University.

Austin, J., Stevenson, H., & Wei–Skillern, J. (2006). Social and commercial entrepreneurship: same, different, or both? Entrepreneurship theory and practice, 30(1), 1-22.

Avelino, F. (2021). Theories of power and social change. Power contestations and their implications for research on social change and innovation. Journal of Political Power, 14(3), 425-448.

Avelino, F., Wittmayer, J. M., Pel, B., Weaver, P., Dumitru, A., Haxeltine, A., & O'Riordan, T. (2019). Transformative social innovation and (dis)empowerment. Technological Forecasting and Social Change, 145, 195-206.

Baekkeskov, E. (2011). Issue framing and sector character as critical parameters for government contracting‐out in the UK. Public Administration, 89(4), 1489-1508.

Baudrillard, J. (1994). Simulacra and simulation. University of Michigan press.

Baudrillard, J. (1998). Société de consommation: Ses mythes, ses structures (Vol. 53). London: Sage.

Bauman, Z. (2013). Liquid modernity. John Wiley & Sons.

Bhaskar, R. (2013 [1975]). A realist theory of science. London: Routledge

Borzaga, C., & Solari, L. (2004). Management challenges. In C. Borzaga & J. Defourny (Eds.), The emergence of social enterprise (Vol. 4, Chapter 19). London: Routledge.

Boschee, J. (2001). Eight basic principles for nonprofit entrepreneurs. Nonprofit World, 17, 15-18.

Bruder, I. (2021). A social mission is not enough: Reflecting the normative foundations of social entrepreneurship. Journal of Business Ethics, 174(3), 487-505.

Bull, M. (2008). Challenging tensions: Critical, theoretical and empirical perspectives on social enterprise. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 14(5), 268-275.

Bull, M., & Crompton, H. (2006). Business practices in social enterprises. Social Enterprise Journal, 2(1), 42-60.

Bull, M., & Ridley-Duff, R. (2018). Towards an appreciation of ethics in social enterprise business models. Journal of Business Ethics, 159, 619-634.

Calás, M. B., Ergene, S., & Smircich, L. (2018). Becoming possible in the Anthropocene? Becomingsocialentrepreneurship as more-than-capitalist practice. In P. Dey & C. Steyaert (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship: An affirmative critique (p. 264-293). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Chell, E., Spence, L. J., Perrini, F., & Harris, J. D. (2016). Social entrepreneurship and business ethics: Does social equal ethical? Journal of business ethics, 133(4), 619-625.

Choat, S. (2018). Science, agency and ontology: A historical-materialist response to new materialism. Political Studies, 66(4), 1027-1042.

Copsey, N. (2013). Au Revoir to ‘Sacred Cows’? Assessing the Impact of the Nouvelle Droite in Britain. Democracy and Security, 9(3), 287-303.

Cornforth, C. (2014). Understanding and combating mission drift in social enterprises. Social Enterprise Journal, 10(1), 3-20.

Cox, G. (2007). What is social enterprise? Personal webpage. (accessed 30 June 2010), UK.

Curtis, T. (2007). Mind forg’d: taking a Foucauldian look at prison based social enterprises. Fourth Annual UK Social Enterprise Research Conference. London: South Bank University.

Curtis, T. (2008). Finding that grit makes a pearl: A critical re‐reading of research into social enterprise. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 14(5), 276-290.

Curtis, T. (2011). ‘Newness’ in social entrepreneurship discourses: the concept of ‘danwei’ in the Chinese experience. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 198-217.

Curtis, T. (2011). ‘Newness’ in social entrepreneurship discourses: the concept of ‘danwei’ in the Chinese experience. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 2(2), 198-217.

Dart, R. (2004). Being ‘business-like’ in a nonprofit organization: a grounded and inductive typology. Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Quarterly, 33(2), 290-310.

de Bruin, A., & Teasdale, S. (2019). Exploring the terrain of social entrepreneurship: New directions, paths less travelled. In A Research Agenda for Social Entrepreneurship (p. 1-12). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Dees, J. G. (1998). Enterprising nonprofits. Harvard Business Review, January/February, 55-67.

Dees, J. G., & Anderson, B. B. (2006). Framing a theory of social entrepreneurship: building on two schools of practice and thought. In R. Mosher-Williams (Ed.), Research on Social Entrepreneurship: Understanding and Contributing to an Emerging Field. (p. 39-66). Indianapolis, IN: ARNOVA.

Defourny, J., & Nyssens, M. (2006). Defining Social Enterprise. In M. Nyssens M. (Ed.), Social Enterprise: At the Crossroads of Market, Public Policies and Civil Society (p. 3-26). London: Routledge.

Defourny, J., & Nyssens, M. (2017). Fundamentals for an international typology of social enterprise models. VOLUNTAS: International Journal of Voluntary and nonprofit organizations, 28(6), 2469-2497.

Dempsey, S. E., & Sanders, M. L. (2010). Meaningful work? Nonprofit marketization and work/life imbalance in popular autobiographies of social entrepreneurship. Organization, 17(4), 437-459.

Dey, P. (2010). The Symbolic Violence of 'Social Entrepreneurship': Language, Power and the Question of the Social (Subject) [Paper presentation], 3rd Research colloquium on social entrepreneurship. Oxford, UK.

Dey, P. and Lehner, O. (2017). Registering ideology in the creation of social entrepreneurs: Intermediary organizations, ‘ideal subject’ and the promise of enjoyment. Journal of Business Ethics, 142(4), 753-767.

Dey, P., (2006). The rhetoric of social entrepreneurship: Paralogy and new language games in academic discourse. In C. Steyaert & D. Hjorth (Eds.), Entrepreneurship as social change (p. 121-144). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Dey, P., & Steyaert, C. (2018). Social entrepreneurship: An affirmative critique. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Dey, P., & Teasdale, S. (2016). The tactical mimicry of social enterprise strategies: Acting ‘as if’ in the everyday life of third sector organizations. Organization, 23(4), 485-504.

Drayton, W. (2002). The Citizen Sector: Becoming as Entrepreneurial and Competitive as Business, California Management Review, 44(3): 120–32.

DTI (2002). Social Enterprise: a strategy for success. London: Department of Trade and Industry. Document in its original form was downloaded from Employee Ownership Australia website at (accessed 20/10/22)

Eco, U. (1986). Semiotics and the Philosophy of Language (Vol. 398). Indiana University Press.

Eco, U. (1995). Ur-fascism. The New York review of books, 42(11), 12-15.

Eikenberry, A. M. (2018). Social entrepreneurship and democracy. In P. Dey & C. Steyaert, C. (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship: An affirmative critique (p. 210-229). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Eikenberry, A. M., & Kluver, J. D. (2004). The marketization of the nonprofit sector: Civil society at risk? Public Administration Review, 64(2), 132-140.

Emerson, J. (2006), Moving ahead together: implications of a blended value framework for the future of social entrepreneurship. In A. Nicholls (Ed.), Social Entrepreneurship: New Paradigms of Sustainable Social Change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Emerson, J., & Twersky, F. (1996). New social entrepreneurs: The success, challenge and lessons of non-profit enterprise creation. Homeless Economic Fund, the Roberts Foundation.

EMES (2004). L’Emergence des enterprises sociales en Europe (1996-1999) [The emergence of social enterprises in Europe project completed between 1996 and 2000]. Liege, Belgium: EMES – L’EMergence de l’Entreprise Sociale [International Research Network]. (accessed February 2004).

Finlayson, A. (2021). Neoliberalism, the Alt-Right and the Intellectual Dark Web. Theory, Culture & Society, 38(6), 167-190.

Flyvbjerg, B. (2001). Making social science matter: Why social inquiry fails and how it can succeed again. Cambridge University Press.

Foucault, M. (1980). Power/knowledge: Selected interviews and other writings, 1972-1977. Vintage.

Fournier, V., & Grey, C. (2000). At the critical moment: Conditions and prospects for critical management studies. Human relations, 53(1), 7-32.

Friedman, V. J., Sykes, I., & Strauch, M. (2018). Expanding the realm of the possible: Field theory and a relational framing of social entrepreneurship. In P. Dey & C. Steyaert (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship: An affirmative critique (p. 239-263). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Ganz, M., Kay, T., & Spicer, J. (2018). Social enterprise is not social change. Stanford Social Innovation Review, 16(2), 59-60.

Gibson-Graham, J. K. (2008). Diverse economies: performative practices for ´other worlds´. Progress in human geography, 32(5), 613-632.

Gibson-Graham, J. K., Cameron, J., & Healy, S. (2013). Take back the economy: An ethical guide for transforming our communities. University of Minnesota Press.

Godin, B. (2019). The invention of technological innovation: Languages, discourses and ideology in historical perspective. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Goerke, J. (2003). Taking the quantum leap: nonprofits are now in business: an Australian perspective. International Journal of Nonprofit and Voluntary Sector Marketing, 8(4), 317-27.

Grenier, P. M. (2008). Role and significance of social entrepreneurship in UK social policy. London School of Economics and Political Science (United Kingdom). PhD Submission.

Haugh, H., & Kitson, M. (2007). The Third Way and the third sector: New Labour's economic policy and the social economy. Cambridge journal of economics, 31(6), 973-994.

Hazenberg, R., Seddon, F., & Denny, S. (2014). Investigating the outcome performance of work-integration social enterprises (WISEs): do WISEs offer ‘added value’ to NEETs? Public management review, 16(6), 876-899.

Hines, F. (2005). Viable social enterprise – an evaluation of business support to social enterprises. Social Enterprise Journal, 1(1), 13-28.

HM Treasury (1999). Enterprise and Social Exclusion HM Treasury National Strategy for Neighbourhood Renewal Policy Action Team 3. London: The Stationery Office.

Horkheimer, M. (1982). Egoism and the Freedom Movement: On the Anthropology of the Bourgeois Era. Telos, 1982(54), 10-60.

Horn, D. M. (2018). Social entrepreneurship, democracy and political participation. In P. Dey & C. Steyaert (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship: An affirmative critique (p. 230-236). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Hu, X. (2018). Methodological implications of critical realism for entrepreneurship research. Journal of Critical Realism, 17(2), 118-139.

Hu, X., Marlow, S., Zimmermann, A., Martin, L., & Frank, R. (2019). Understanding opportunities in social entrepreneurship: A critical realist abstraction. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice, V44(5) 1032-1056

Huckfield, L. (2022). How Blair killed the co-ops: Reclaiming social enterprise from its neoliberal turn. Manchester, UK: Manchester University Press.

Hulgård, L. (2014). Social enterprise and the third sector–Innovative service delivery or a non-capitalist economy?. In J. Defourny, L. Hulgård & V. Pestoff (Eds.), Social enterprise and the third sector (p. 82-100). London: Routledge.

Hulgard, L., &. Spear, R. (2006). Social entrepreneurship and the mobilization of social capital in European social enterprises. In M. Nyssens (Ed.), Social Enterprise at the Crossroads of Market, Public and Civil Society. London: Routledge.

Jarrodi, H., Byrne, J., & Bureau, S. (2019). A political ideology lens on social entrepreneurship motivations. Entrepreneurship & Regional Development, 31(7-8), 583-604.

Johnson, P., & Duberley, J. (2003). Reflexivity in management research. Journal of management studies, 40(5), 1279-1303.

Kant, S. L. (2014). The distinction and relationship between ontology and epistemology: does it matter? Politikon: The IAPSS Journal of Political Science, 24, 68-85.

Kuratko, D. F. (2005). The emergence of entrepreneurship education: development, trends, and challenges. Entrepreneurship: Theory and Practice, 29(5), 577-97.

Law, J. (2004). After method: Mess in social science research. London: Routledge.

Leadbeater, C. (1997). The rise of the social entrepreneur (No. 25). Demos.

Lewis, J. (2005). New Labour's approach to the voluntary sector: independence and the meaning of partnership. Social policy and society, 4(2), 121-131.

Macmillan, R. (2010). The third sector delivering public services: an evidence review. Third Sector Research Centre. Working Paper 20, July.

Mair, J., & Marti, I. (2006). Social entrepreneurship research: A source of explanation, prediction, and delight. Journal of world business, 41(1), 36-44.

Manavis, S. (2018). Eco-fascism: The ideology marrying environmentalism and white supremacy thriving online. New Statesman, September 21.

Mason, C., Moran, M., & Carey, G. (2021). Never Mind the Buzzwords: Comparing Social Enterprise Policy-Making in the United Kingdom and Australia. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 12(1), 28-49.

Mingers, J. (2014). Systems thinking, critical realism and philosophy: A confluence of ideas. London: Routledge.

Mirrlees, Tanner (2018). The Alt-Right's Discourse of 'Cultural Marxism': A Political Instrument of Intersectional Hate. Atlantis, 39(1), 49-69

Moulaert, F., & MacCallum, D. (2019). Advanced introduction to social innovation. Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Nicholls, A. & Young, R., (2008). Preface to the paperback edition. In A. Nicholls (Ed.), Social entrepreneurship: New models of sustainable social change. Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nicholls, A., & Cho, A. H. (2006). Social entrepreneurship: the structuration of a field. In A. Nicholls (Ed.), Social Entrepreneurship: New Models of Sustainable Social Change (p. 99-118). Oxford: Oxford University Press.

Nicholls, A., & Teasdale, S. (2017). Neoliberalism by stealth? Exploring continuity and change within the UK social enterprise policy paradigm. Policy & Politics, 45(3), 323-341.

Park, M. (2013). The trouble with eco-politics of localism: Too close to the far right? Debates on ecology and globalization. Interface, 5(2), 318-343.

Parkinson, C., & Howorth, C. (2008). The language of social entrepreneurs. Entrepreneurship & regional development, 20(3), 285-309.

Pearce, J. (2003), Social Enterprise in Anytown, Calouste Gulbenkian Foundation, London.

Pel, B., Haxeltine, A., Avelino, F., Dumitru, A., Kemp, R., Bauler, T., Kunze, I., Dorland, J., Wittmayer, J. M., & Jørgensen, M. S. (2020). Towards a theory of transformative social innovation: A relational framework and 12 propositions. Research Policy, 49(8), 104080.

Pendras, M. (2002). From local consciousness to global change: asserting power at the local scale. International Journal of Urban and Regional Research, 26(4), 823-833

Peredo, A. M., Haugh, H. M., Hudon, M., & Meyer, C. (2020). Mapping Concepts and Issues in the Ethics of the Commons: Introduction to the Special Issue. Journal of Business Ethics, 166(4), 659-672.

Petitgand, C. (2018). Business tools in nonprofit organizations: a performative story. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour & Research, 24(3), 667-682.

Pharoah, C., Scott, D., & Fisher, A. (2004). Social Enterprise in the Balance: Challenges for the Voluntary Sector. Charities Aid Foundation, West Malling.

Phillips, M., & Knowles, D. (2012). Performance and performativity: Undoing fictions of women business owners. Gender, Work & Organization, 19(4), 416-437.

Ranville, A., & Barros, M. (2021). Towards normative theories of social entrepreneurship. A review of the top publications of the field. Journal of Business Ethics, 180, 407-438

Reid, K., & Griffith, J. (2006). Social enterprise mythology: critiquing some assumptions. Social Enterprise Journal, 2(1), 1-10.

Rhodes, R. A. (1994). The hollowing out of the state: The changing nature of the public service in Britain. The Political Quarterly, 65(2), 138-151.

Ridley-Duff, R., & Bull, M. (2011). Understanding social enterprise: Theory and practice. London: Sage.

Ridley-Duff, R., & Bull, M. (2021). Common pool resource institutions: The rise of internet platforms in the social solidarity economy. Business Strategy & the Environment, 30(3), 1436-1453.

Ridley‐Duff, R. (2007). Communitarian perspectives on social enterprise. Corporate Governance: An International Review, 15(2), 382-392.

Ridley‐Duff, R. (2008). Social enterprise as a socially rational business. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behavior & Research, 14(5), 291-312.

Ridley‐Duff, R., & Southcombe, C. (2012). The Social Enterprise Mark: a critical review of its conceptual dimensions, Social Enterprise Journal, 8(3), 178-200.

Riedel, R. (2021). Green conservatism or environmental nativism? Zeitschrift für Vergleichende Politikwissenschaft, 15(2), 207-227.

Roy, M. J., & Grant, S. (2020). The contemporary relevance of Karl Polanyi to critical social enterprise scholarship. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 11(2), 177-193.

Ruebottom, T. (2018). Deliberative democracy in social entrepreneurship: a discourse ethics approach to participative processes of social change. In P. Dey & C. Steyaert (Eds.), Social entrepreneurship: An affirmative critique (p. 191-219). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar.

Scase, R., & Goffee, R., (1980). The real world of the small business owner. Taylor & Francis.

Schachter, H. L. (2022). Race, class, gender and social entrepreneurship: extending the positionality of icons. Journal of Management History, 28(4), 476-490.

Scott-Cato, M., & Hillier, J. (2010). How could we study climate-related social innovation? Applying Deleuzean philosophy to Transition Towns. Environmental Politics, 19(6), 869-887.

Scott-Cato, M., & Raffaelli, P. (2017). The social and solidarity economy in Argentina and the UK: convergence from opposite directions. In P. North & M. S. Cato (Eds.), Towards Just and Sustainable Economies: The Social and Solidarity Economy North and South (p. 275-294). Policy Press.

Scott-Cato, S., Arthur, L., Keenoy, T., & Smith, R. (2008). Entrepreneurial energy: Associative entrepreneurship in the renewable energy sector in Wales. International Journal of Entrepreneurial Behaviour and Research, 14(5), 313-329.

Sepulveda, L. (2015). Social enterprise–a new phenomenon in the field of economic and social welfare? Social Policy & Administration, 49(7), 842-861.

Sharpe, M. (2020). Is ‘cultural Marxism’ Really Taking over Universities? I Crunched Some Numbers to Find Out. The Conversation. September 7.

Sheehan, T. (1981). Myth and Violence: The Fascism of Julius Evola and Alain de Benoist. Social Research, 48(1), 45-73.

Spear, R. (2001). United Kingdom. A wide range of social enterprises. In C. Borzaga & J. Defourny (Eds.), The emergence of social enterprise (p. 252-270). London: Routledge.

Steyaert, C., & Dey, P. (2010). Nine verbs to keep the social entrepreneurship research agenda ‘dangerous’. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 1(2), 231-254.

Steyaert, C., & Dey, P. (2018). The books on social entrepreneurship we edit, critique and imagine. In P. Dey & C. Steyaert (Eds.), Social Entrepreneurship: an affirmative critique. (p. 1-15). Cheltenham, UK: Edward Elgar

Teasdale, S. (2010). How can social enterprise address disadvantage? Evidence from an inner city community. Journal of Nonprofit & Public Sector Marketing, 22(2), 89-107.

Teasdale, S., Dey, P., & Steyaert, C. (2012). Social entrepreneurship: Critique and the radical enactment of the social. Social Enterprise Journal, 8(2), 90-107.

Teasdale, S., Roy, M. J., Ziegler, R., Mauksch, S., Dey, P., & Raufflet, E. B. (2021). Everyone a changemaker? Exploring the moral underpinnings of social innovation discourse through real utopias. Journal of Social Entrepreneurship, 12(3), 417-437.

Terry, L. D. (1998). Administrative leadership, neo-managerialism, and the public management movement. Public Administration Review, 58(3),194-200.

Thompson, M., Nowak, V., Southern, A., Davies, J., & Furmedge, P. (2020). Re-grounding the city with Polanyi: From urban entrepreneurialism to entrepreneurial municipalism. Environment and Planning A: Economy and Space, 52(6), 1171-1194.

Turnbull, S. (1994). Stakeholder democracy: redesigning the governance of firms and bureaucracies. Journal of Socio-Economics, 23(3), 321-60.

Tuters, M. (2018). Cultural Marxism. Krisis: Journal for Contemporary Philosophy, 2018(2), 32-34.

Vincent, S., & O'Mahoney, J. (2018). Critical realism and qualitative research: An introductory overview. In C. Cassell, A. L. Cunliffe & G. Grandy (Eds.), The SAGE Handbook of Qualitative Business and Management Research Methods (p. 201-216). London: Sage.

Welter, F. (2011). Contextualizing entrepreneurship—conceptual challenges and ways forward. Entrepreneurship theory and Practice, 35(1), 165-184.

Welter, F., Baker, T., & Wirsching, K. (2019). Three waves and counting: The rising tide of contextualization in entrepreneurship research. Small Business Economics, 52(2), 319-330.

Woods, A. (2019). Cultural Marxism and the Cathedral: Two Alt-Right Perspectives on Critical Theory. In C. M. Battista & M. R. Sande (Eds.), Critical Theory and the Humanities in the Age of the Alt-Right (p. 39-59). New York: Springer International, Palgrave Macmillan.

Yıldırım, N., & Tuncalp, D. (2016). Legitimating Mitigator or a Powerful Comrade? Social Innovation from a Marxist Perspective. [Paper presentation] 32nd EGOS Colloquium – European Group for Organizational Studies. Subtheme 18: Marxist Organization Studies: Institutional Forms of Power and their Legitimacy: Napoli, Italy.

Young, R. (2006). For What It Is Worth: Social Value and the Future of Social Entrepreneurship. In A. Nicholls (Ed.), Social Entrepreneurship: New Paradigms of Sustainable Social Change (p. 56-73). Oxford: Oxford University Press.



  • There are currently no refbacks.