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A geodesic approach to three-dimensional measurement optic techniques for determination of movements and transport of heights in areas of risk

Andrea de Seixas, Admilson da Penha Pacheco, Luis Augusto Koenig Veiga, Daniel Perozzo dos Santos, Pedro Luis Faggion


This work deals with methods of applied geodesics related to threedimensional
measurement optic techniques applied to determine vertical movements
and transport of heights through modern geodesic instrumentation. It considers the
importance and necessity for the study of geodesic methods of three-dimensional
positioning, by polar measurement systems based on theodolites. It considers the
current demands for industrial applications resulting from the need for greater
geometrical precision in the construction industry and in the operation of machines
and efficiency in the control of operational and environmental risks, conventional
geodesic measurement methods need to be automated to be able to be employed.
Such is the case, for example, of the requirements for an increase in speed and
precision as well as a reduction of measurement costs that are associated to quality
control. The acquisition of vertical movement as well as the transport of heights can
be carried out by using the geometric levelling method as well as through
transference of theodolitic height. By the polar method, grid line method and
procedures derived from trigonometric levelling. For angular measurements of
directions and distances, based on advance intersection and polar measurement,
they are potentially useful-principally in restricted surroundings or in no
conventional monitoring applications - pointing and video theodolites, electronic
tacheometry and video tacheometry. In a general way, these systems are based on
theodolites, as the hybrid measurement system, which have manual functioning
(manual system) or are adapted to motors (motorized systems) for completely
automatic functioning. The importance of pre-analysis and field observations are
worth emphasizing, in three-dimensional geodesic network as reference to precise
positioning of the objects under study, so that they can be studied and analysed as
much for vertical movement as height transport. Thus searching for more
appropriate solutions for stability of buildings and therefore a reduction in
construction risks.


Técnicas ópticas de medição tridimensional; deslocamento vertical; sistema manual; sistema motorizado e métodos geodésicos de posicionamento tridimensional; Three-dimensional measurement optic techniques; vertical movement; manual system